International journal of Education Teacher 2024-05-31T11:06:30+02:00 Ljupcho Kevereski Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Education</p> <p>Faculty of Education - Bitola</p> <p>"St. Kliment Ohridski" University - Bitola, North Macedonia</p> <p>The international Journal of Education TEACHER is published twice a year, in <strong>may</strong> and <strong>november.</strong></p> <p>Full papers are accepted for review all the time.</p> <p>Papers are submited by registering in our system or by sending them to <strong></strong></p> SENSE RELATION IN VOCABULARY ACQUISITION 2024-03-27T09:39:43+01:00 Alda Jashari (Cicko) <p>Foreign language teachers must select vocabulary carefully to ensure that high quality items are included and provide varied opportunities for practice. Teachers should pay the most prudent attention in organization of lexis for the classroom as to offer as wide a range of practice ideas in order to facilitate effective learning. Acquiring a large, coloured and nuanced vocabulary knowledge does not imply simply studying a list of words alongside with dictionary definitions. Language diversity implies great possibilities of lexical choice as means of enhancing the effectiveness and accuracy of speech. Modern foreign languages teaching methods should aim at building a broad, deep, rich and flexible vocabulary corpus of words. Grouping of words is based upon similarities and contrasts. Every language has in its lexicon a variety of words, kindred in meaning, but distinct in morphemic composition and usage, ensuring the expression of the most delicate and somehow hidden shades of human perception, thought, feeling and imagination. The use of synonyms and antonyms is a quick and effective way of explaining unknown words and teachers can resort to them as means of describing words’ meanings.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher Application of Formative and summative assessment in Prishtina Upper Primary Schools 2024-03-21T15:28:04+01:00 Niman Dreshaj <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Examining the evaluation process and the items used to evaluate students is crucial. For student evaluations, teachers are either staying with more traditional methods that need significantly less commitment than present methods, or they are adopting more modern alternatives. The purpose of this research is to find out whether and how Kosovo's student teaching content is evaluated. Thus, the study focuses on identifying various types of test designs that are employed to determine their effectiveness. The goal of this study is to improve teaching and learning by offering reliable information on evaluation. The results display that most teachers are trained to use summative methods, and occasionally formative methods are implemented. The information gathered also reveals that the application of particular strategies by teachers is significantly influenced by their age, length of service, and attendance at training. The results show that older teachers tend to use summative assessments. whereas younger educators use formative strategies.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher THE FEEDBACK CORRECTIVE NATURE IN ESSAYS 2024-02-29T07:02:19+01:00 Violeta Janusheva Jove Dimitrija Talevski Milena Pejchinovska-Stojkovikj <p>Given that the teachers’ feedback is among the essential factors that affect students’ achievements, the present study examines the teachers’ feedback quality in essays in the secondary education of the RNM, regarding its corrective nature, in the teaching subject Macedonian language and literature. Thus, the aim is to obtain a general picture on the feedback quality having in mind the theoretical indications on the way the feedback should be provided to fulfill its main function, i.e. to be corrective and to guide students’ toward improvement of their learning and achievements.</p> <p>The sample consists of 50 students’ essays, from first to fourth grade of the secondary education, on which teachers’ feedback is written, and the analysis rests upon coding and the inductive-interpretative method, and the comparison, as well.</p> <p>The research results indicate that there is a gap between the theory and the practice, i.e. the teachers’ feedback loses its corrective character. Instead of directing the students to undertake actions for enhancement of the identified shortcomings, the analyzed feedback comes down to the phrase be careful followed by the aspect on which the students should focus on, thus limiting their further steps in learning.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher CHALLENGES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF LESSONS THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF ICT 2024-05-13T09:07:05+02:00 Venera Shatri Ramosaj <p>The topic of this research has to do with the challenges of the principals of the primary schools of the municipality of Istog in supporting teachers for the development of lessons through the integration of ICT. Considering the state of many schools in Kosovo, the many changes and reforms in the education system, and the necessity of ICT integration to meet the demands of these reforms, I think that this research is useful and important to understand what challenges school principals face in order to create the necessary conditions for teachers and students to hold lessons using ICT.</p> <p>In order to achieve the most effective and accurate results, quantitative methods were used during this research - questionnaires for teachers and qualitative methods - interviews for the leaders of primary schools in the municipality of Istog. The research was carried out in the municipality of Istog from a total of 25 schools (ShFMU), with 5 principals and 140 corresponding teachers of these schools.</p> <p>At the end of the realization of this research, the challenges of school leaders in the integration, cooperation and initiation of teachers for the use of technology in the teaching process have been identified, as well as contributing to new leaders who will research in this field.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher Socio-Pedagogical Strategies in Occupational Therapy for Children with Autism and Learning Difficulties 2024-03-19T11:32:07+01:00 Denis Arsovski Gordana Stojanoska Tatjana Atanasoska <p>Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with varying symptomatology that affects individuals throughout their lives. This paper explores the intersections of sociology, pedagogy interventions, and occupational therapy in addressing the needs of individuals with ASD. Sociological perspectives offer insights into social determinants of health, the construction of disability, and family dynamics, informing holistic interventions.Pedagogical strategies are focused on individualized approaches, multi-sensory techniques and social skills development to create inclusive learning environments. Occupational therapy interventions focus on functional skills development, promoting independence, and enhancing participation in daily activities.</p> <p>Collaborative efforts between professionals, educators, families, and individuals with ASD are essential for implementing effective interventions and promoting social inclusion. Future research directions include longitudinal studies, technology integration, and culturally responsive practices to optimize outcomes. By integrating sociological, pedagogical, and occupational therapy approaches, professionals can allow people with ASD to reach their full potential and lead fulfilling lives.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher The challenges of integrating students with Down Syndrome 2024-05-13T09:33:35+02:00 Miranda Lushaj Shala <p>This research focuses on the integration challenges of children with Down Syndrome, this topic addresses the issue of their integration into regular classes.</p> <p>This research has used the quantitative and qualitative methods which has served in data collection and analysis.</p> <p>The research was conducted in the parallel classes of the following primary schools in Gjakove: “Yll Morina” and “Zekeria Rexha”, at the Resource Center “Përparimi” in Prishtina, as well as in some other primary public schools in Prishtina and in Gjakova (in (“Nazim Gafurri”, “Hilmi Rakovica”, “Mustafa Bakia”, “Shaban Golaj”). The research was conducted based on various literary review and studies done regarding this field, along with the data results collected from the questionnaires.</p> <p>From the given answers we get to conclude that the discriminative mentality, the lack of professionalism from the teachers side in order to work with children with Down Syndrome, the inadequate infrastructure, result to be challenging in integrating these children into regular (inclusive) classes. The majority of teachers agree that MASHT (MEST) should provide professional trainings to the teachers that work with children with Down Syndrome.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 2024-03-27T09:34:38+01:00 Ujkane Hana Beshiri <p>This systematic review examines the Comparative Analysis of Language Teaching Methods, focusing on Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT), and the Direct Method. The study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of these methods, including their historical evolution, core principles, and practical application in educational settings. Through a thorough examination, the effectiveness of each method in terms of language acquisition, learner engagement, and overall proficiency is discerned. The review contributes to the existing body of knowledge in language education and serves as a valuable resource for language educators, policymakers, and researchers. By critically evaluating each method, key principles and best practices are identified, offering insights for the development of more effective language teaching strategies. The scope and significance of the study lie in its potential to inform stakeholders about the strengths and limitations of different methods, guiding the advancement of language education practices. The literature review explores the historical development of language teaching methods, and current trends in language education, and highlights the adaptability of language instruction to meet diverse learning preferences and objectives.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher Ethics in Times of Advanced AI: Investigating Students’ Attitudes Towards ChatGPT and Academic Integrity 2024-03-19T11:32:28+01:00 Elena Shalevska Bisera Kostadinovska-Stojchevska <p>The rise of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has permanently changed life as we know it. And education has been no exception. Understanding the issues and benefits that may come with the implementation of AI into higher education, in particular, this study examines the impact of advanced AI models, like ChatGPT, on academic integrity. By employing a mixed-methods approach, the study gathers insights from undergraduate students at the University "St. Kliment Ohridski" in Bitola, North Macedonia, exploring their views on AI's role in academic practices.<br>By identifying the key points through a brief literature review, this study finds that the concerns about the use of AI in education are indeed founded – concerns including potential for cheating and the ethical dilemmas posed by such technologies. Some of these concerns were also confirmed by the data obtained through our survey. A sample of 114 undergraduate students kindly provided their responses for this study, helping further our insights with their perspective. The findings from the survey revealed that students are moderately comfortable with using AI for academic purposes, with a notable portion of them admitting to using ChatGPT without disclosure to professors. The reasons behind the undisclosed use of AI, according to the data collected, include pressures for high grades, time constraints and the accepted belief that cheating is “what everyone is doing”.<br>Despite its limitations, such as reliance on self-reported data and its focus on a specific geographic and academic context, we believe that the study still manages to make a small, yet significant contribution to the ethical challenges posed by AI in education.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT: WHY IS IMPORTANT AND HOW TO INVOLVE PARENTS IN SCHOOLS? 2024-03-21T10:01:20+01:00 Vesna Stojanovska <p>This article is an in-depth qualitative literature review on the importance, benefits, and ways of parental involvement in the education of their children. It highlights the fact that parental involvement in their child's learning process offers many opportunities for success – improvements in the child's academic achievement, and social and emotional adjustment. The collaboration between the parent and the teacher is an important prerequisite for encouraging the full development of the child. It is therefore, parental involvement should be seen as an important tool for the advancement of the quality of education that should be part of regular school practice.</p> <p>The paper also analyzes the possibilities for parent participation in the various aspects of school life. Parental involvement can have different types, from simple informational conversation, and consulting parents, to active and passive participation of parents in curricular and extracurricular activities.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher THE SPECIAL FEATURES OF ALEXANDER XHUVAN'S PEDAGOGICAL OPINION 2024-05-17T11:32:45+02:00 Kujtim Gashi <p>&nbsp;The study of A. Xhuvan's activity, with particular emphasis on the drafting and publication of primary and secondary school texts (then also high school), is still important today, due to the fact that science constantly finds new information about his works. . The studies so far have partially given scientific opinion on this great personality of education.</p> <p>&nbsp; We will analyze the data from the year 1919, when he published the first text "Language book or grammar: First part", he (either as author or co-author) published or reprinted nearly 40 textbooks of Albanian grammar and syntax, elementary , reading books, anthologies, texts of ancient Greek and Arberian literature, of stylistics and general literature, of pedagogy and psychology, etc., among which are the texts: "Didactics and Education" (1926), "Beginnings of Stylistics" of general literature" (co-author with Kostaq Cipo, 1930); "Additional psychology in the work of education" (1933), which Norbert Jokli called a "monumental" work, then "Didactics" (1937), "Education" in manuscript, etc.</p> <p>We will analyze his studies and texts, the way in which the two rare types of a man naturally intertwine, that is, A. Xhuvani the scholar and A. Xhuvani the linguist. His texts are used, not only in Albania, but also in the Albanian territories abroad, even in the diaspora. They also served as a methodological model for other authors of Albanian textbooks. Even in Kosovo, the first grammars of the Albanian language were drawn up according to the model of Alexander Xhuvan's texts. In addition to textbooks, he was also an editor, reviewer, translator, etc. With the textbooks of A. Xhuvan, a new stage in Albanian textology began. Meanwhile, he intensified cooperation with many magazines and newspapers of the time, such as: "Pedagogical Magazine", "Normalisti", "Kumtari assimuer", "New School", "Teacher", "National School", etc., where he dealt with various issues pedagogical, educational, teaching etc...</p> <p>Xhuvan's pedagogical thought is a model thought that should be guided today and that his works deserve more in-depth studies.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher THE ROLE OF HIGHER VOCATIONAL SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA 2024-03-27T09:43:53+01:00 Elena Stankoska <p>The intensive changes in all spheres of social life in general, especially in higher education and its adaptation to the European system of Higher Education, bring serious challenges that all responsible institutions and entities face. Of course, a special role in this direction is played by university libraries that should greatly help in meeting the educational, informational, and cultural needs of the students, but also help in advancing new ways of learning such as lifelong learning, distance learning, and thus help, the student to always be in the spotlight. In that regard, this paper is focused on the capacities, organization, and functioning of university libraries in the Republic of North Macedonia, to obtain relevant data on how ready they are to respond to such modern requests, and how ready they are to take their rightful place within the University.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS AS AN ETHICAL MODEL ON THE STUDENTS' DEVELOPMENT 2024-02-27T11:17:28+01:00 Ejona Icka Jasminka Kochoska <p>As a result of globalization, people are faced with large and rapid changes, but also with challenges for which they are not prepared and the reactions to these changes are often not at all in the interest of well-being and development. Today, educators face major challenges despite the various educational reforms and substantial research undertaken over the past decades. At the same time, rapid technological advances and increasing complexities in social life may make it difficult to emphasize morals, values, and ethics and present them through improved curriculum and teaching practices. The emphasis in this paper will be placed on the teacher who, as an ethical model, has a significant influence on the development of students.</p> <p>Teachers play a decisive role in the cultivation of moral values and ethical behavior of students in schools. Through the model of their behavior, teachers influence the formation of perceptions and internalization of students' moral values, encouraging and promoting a sense of ethical responsibility and orienting the decision-making processes. Character, ethical, and moral behavior of teachers, remain an example in the development of students' talent, emotional intelligence, instructions in ethical decision-making, fostering the development of a moral culture, encouraging self-reflection, nurturing a sense of responsibility, integrating traditional and contemporary learning, encouraging critical thinking, and providing mentoring and support. Also, the effects of moral and ethical education are long-term, which are reflected not only in interpersonal and social relations, and impact in the community, but are also clearly reflected in the motivation to study, the encouragement of the development of talents, but also in the inheritance of these values in other generations.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher THE SERMON AND MODERN GENRE CLASSIFICATION 2024-03-27T09:28:28+01:00 Anita Angelevska <p>The sermon is defined as a "genre of oratorical prose: a didactic work that contains ethical demands and prompts the listener to an emotional perception of those demands". In the literary room encyclopedia has not been given much attention until now, and the interest in it can even be named as limited. It occurs only within general rhetoric, history, theology, and philosophy. The area functional variety of language includes the sphere of religion, where the sermon also belongs. Here, in this paper, we try to systematize the observations related to the genre classification of the sermon.</p> <p>Concerning the sermon, as one of the most significant genres in the area of the sacred, special attention deserves consideration and analysis of its specific communicative properties. The questions in this sphere refer to its realization in oral form, the referral to a collective addressee, the asymmetry between the communicants (absolute dominance of the preacher over the recipients), strong presence of intertextuality and linguistic features, among which the interaction of archaic and modern language units on the lexical, phonetic, morphological and syntactic level. The textological peculiarities of the sermon remain the focus of one of the following scientific - research activities, which on the other hand enables a functional analysis of the medieval literary texts (the praise epistle of St. Clement of Ohrid, for example).</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher Increasing of the interest for German language studying through acknowledgment of their customs and tradition 2024-04-04T10:38:20+02:00 Evdokija Galovska <p>Each country is rich in its own customs and traditions. Our country as well, and our children get to know them from an early age. In the world there were many peoples who speak their own languages and respect their own traditions and customs. One of the ways to increase children's interest in learning a foreign language such as German is to introduce them to their traditions and customs. The biggest role to achieve this is ours, the teachers, because the children spend a large part of the day at school, and when they are at home doing their homework.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher TRANSFORMING EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION STRATEGIES AND THEIR OUTCOMES 2024-05-13T09:15:28+02:00 Sofija Filipovska <p>This paper examines the efficacy of diversity and inclusion (D&amp;I) strategies within educational institutions, aiming to identify their impacts on both student outcomes and institutional culture. Amidst growing calls for more equitable educational environments, this research provides a systematic analysis of various D&amp;I initiatives implemented across different types of educational settings. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the study combines quantitative data from student performance metrics with qualitative feedback from faculty and students to assess the transformative effects of these strategies. The findings highlight significant correlations between robust D&amp;I programs and improved academic performance, enhanced social cohesion, and increased cultural awareness among students. Moreover, the research explores how these strategies reshape institutional policies and practices, promoting a more inclusive culture that reflects the diverse demographics of the student body. The implications of this study extend to policymakers and educational leaders, offering evidence-based recommendations for fostering inclusivity that not only enriches the educational experience but also prepares students for a diverse global workforce. This comprehensive analysis contributes to the ongoing discourse on the necessity of integrating effective D&amp;I strategies in educational institutions, ultimately arguing f<strong>or their critical role in shaping more dynamic and inclusive </strong><strong>educational landscapes.</strong></p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher THE THE SKULL EMOJI IN GEN-Z INTERNET SLANG: A STUDY OF ITS USE AS TONE TAG AND PUNCTUATION 2024-05-31T09:30:34+02:00 Bisera Kostadinovska-Stojchevska Elena Shalevska <p>Emojis are employed to enhance communication in the digital age on the daily. And the digital-natives, the Gen-Zers, seem to be particularly creative when it comes to their use. Recognizing this, this qualitative study examines the evolving use of one particular emoji – the skull emoji, as a tone tag within Gen-Z internet slang. By analyzing various examples from different social media platforms, the paper highlights how this emoji, beyond its conventional representation of death, has been repurposed by this generation of speakers to denote laughter or embarrassment.</p> <p>The study further argues that the modern use of the skull emoji serves a dual function: it not only signifies humor/awkwardness but also acts as a tool to separate text, thereby being used as a makeshift punctuation mark.</p> 2024-05-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International journal of Education Teacher